reserved job quota in various sectors are based on caste quota ,gender based ,management quota, religion based, domiciles
Types of Reservation
Seats in educational institutions and jobs are reserved based on a variety of criteria. The quota system sets aside a proportion of all possible positions for members of a specific group. Those not belonging to the designated communities can compete only for the remaining positions, while members of the designated communities can compete for all positions (reserved and open). For example, when 2 out of 10 clerical positions in railways are reserved for ex-servicemen, those who have served in the Army can compete both in the General Category as well as in the specific quota.
Seats are reserved for Schedules Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Castes (based chiefly on caste at birth) in varying ratio by the central government and state government. This caste is decided based on birth, and can never be changed. While a person can change his religion, and his economic status can fluctuate, the caste is permanent.
In central government funded higher education institutions, 22.5% of available seats are reserved for Scheduled Caste (Dalit)and Scheduled Tribe (Adivasi) students (15% for SCs, 7.5% for STs). This reservation percentage has been raised to 49.5%, by including an additional 27% reservation for OBCs. In AIIMS 14% of seats are reserved for SCs, 8% for STs. In addition, SC/ST students with only 50% scores are eligible. This ratio is followed even in Parliament and all elections where few constituencies are earmarked for those from certain communities. In a few states like Tamil Nadu, the percentage of reservation is 18% for SCs and 1% for STs, being based on local demographics. In Andhra Pradesh, 25% of educational institutes and government jobs for BCs, 15% for SCs, 6% for STs and 4% for Muslims.
Most controversial quota is the Management quota according to the advocaters of Pro-caste reservation people. It is also been seriously criticized by leading educationalists as it is a quota based on economic status irrespective of caste, race and religion as anybody who has money can buy his seat. It reserves about 15 % seats in private colleges for the students who are decided by the college management's own criteria. The criteria involves the colleges own entrance exam or minimum %age of 10+2 legally.
Women's reservations Women get 33% reservation in gram panchayat (meaning village assembly, which is a form of local village government) and municipal elections. There is a long-term plan to extend this reservation to parliament and legislative assemblies. In addition, women in India get reservation or preferential treatments in education and jobs. Certain men consider this preferential treatment of women in India as discrimination against them in admissions to schools, colleges, and universities. For instance, several law schools in India have a 30% reservation for females. Progressive political opinion in India is strongly in favor of providing preferential treatment to women in order to create a level playing field for all of its citizens.
The Women's reservation Bill was passed by the Rajya Sabha on 9 March 2010 by a majority vote of 186 members in favor and 1 against. It will now go to the Lok Sabha, and if passed there, would be implemented.
The Tamil Nadu government has allotted 3.5% of seats each to Muslims and Christians, thereby altering the OBC reservation to 23% from 30% since it excludes persons belonging to Other Backward Castes who are either Muslims or Christians. The government's argument is that this sub-quota is based on the backwardness of the religious communities and not on the religions themselves.
Andhra Pradesh's administration has introduced a law enabling 4% reservations for Muslims. This has been contested in court. Kerala Public Service Commission has a quota of 12% for Muslims. Religious minority status educational institutes also have 50% reservation for their particular religions.
State of domiciles
With few exceptions, all jobs under state government are reserved to those who are domiciles under that government. In PEC Chandigarh, earlier 80% of seats were reserved for Chandigarh domiciles and now it is 50%.
Institutes like JIPMER have a policy of reserving postgraduate seats for those who completed their MBBS in JIPMER. [AIIMS] used to reserve 33% of its 120 postgraduate seats for the 40 undergraduate students (meaning everyone who had completed MBBS in AIIMS was assured a postgraduate seat, which was judged illegal by a Court.
Some reservations are also made for:
* Sons/Daughters/Grandsons/Grand daughters of freedom Fighters.
* Physically handicapped.
* Sports personalities.
* Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) have a small fracton of reserved seats in educational institutions. They have to pay more fees and pay in foreign currency (Note : NRI reservations were removed from IIT in 2003).
* Candidates sponsored by various organizations.
* Those who have served in the armed forces (ex-serviceman quota).
* Dependants of armed forces personnel killed in action.
* Those born from inter-caste marriages.
* Reservation in special schools of Govt. Undertakings /PSUs meant for the children of their employees (e.g. Army schools, PSU schools, etc.).
* Paid pathway reservations in places of worship (e.g. Tirupathi Balaji Temple, Tiruthani Murugan (Balaji) temple).
* Seat reservation for Senior citizens/ PH in Public Bus transport.
In view of the fact that several of the top undergraduate and graduate institutions in India, such as the IITs, the IIMs are among the most selective in the world, it is not surprising that most reservation criteria are applied at the stage of entrance examinations for these institutions. Some of the criteria are relaxed for reserved categories, while others are completely eliminated. Examples include:
1. The minimum high school marks criteria are relaxed for reserved seats.
3. Fees, Hostel Room Rent etc
It is important to note, however, that the criteria required to graduate from an institution are never relaxed, although some institutions provide reduced load programs (such as the ones at IITs) to meet the special needs of these students.